Precision Medicine & Genomics In India

precision medicine
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Precision medicine is reshaping conventional diagnostics and drug therapy by customising treatments to each patient’s genetic profile. Genetic fingerprints are used in this approach to support decisions regarding treatment by fusing biology and technology. Precision medicine, also called personalised medicine, merges population health, big data analytics, and genetics to influence the future of healthcare. Adopting personalised medicine involves adapting diagnostics, pharmacological therapy, prevention, and treatment to take into account each patient’s individuality. Personalized medicine is influenced by genomics which offers significant insights into the distinctive biological differences across individuals. This information enables us to provide tailored predictions about the likelihood of contracting a disease and empowers people to select preventive strategies catered to their own needs.

Each DNA instruction found inside a cell is included in the genome. In humans, it consists of a small chromosome in the mitochondria and 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell’s nucleus. The genome carries all the information that’s needed to regulate an individual’s development and functioning. Every living thing has a genome, which serves as a guide for development and maintenance. We can examine the complexities of a person’s genetic makeup and get important insights into their health concerns by sequencing their genome. People are better equipped to make health-related decisions with this knowledge.

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In February 2013, Angelina Jolie underwent preventive cancer surgery to remove her ovaries and fallopian tubes. In the same year, she had also undergone a precautionary double mastectomy. Jolie had a greatly increased chance of developing breast and ovarian cancer because of a mutation in the BRCA1 gene. Her medical professionals predicted that she had a 50% probability of acquiring ovarian cancer and an 87% chance of developing breast cancer. Jolie has lost her mother, grandmother, and aunt tragically to cancer, and the disease runs in her family.

The development of genomics has greatly improved illness detection, therapy, and prevention through cutting-edge monitoring techniques. Genome sequencing has been essential in understanding the biology and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus during the Covid-19 pandemic. Rapid diagnostic tools and vaccinations were created by sharing the virus’ genetic information and sequencing its RNA early on.

The Ministry of Science and Technology launched the Genome India Project (GIP) in January 2020, taking inspiration from the Human Genome Project (HGP). GIP aims to collect 10,000 genetic samples from across India to build a reference genome. This reference genome will further our existing understanding of diseases and characteristics in the varied Indian population, having an influence on biomedical research, biology, and the healthcare industry. GIP will help in the diagnosis of illnesses and the personalization of therapies by using the genomes of patients. Early identification and tailored public health interventions will be made possible by mapping illness probability to genetic differences. The creation of “Indian genomic sequences” is a key goal of GIP in order to acquire insight into the peculiarities of India’s heterogeneous population. The research will raise awareness of and identify genetic variants unique to India while also adding to the HGP’s current database.


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